Avoiding Pitfalls: Key Lessons from a Rule 43 Divorce Showdown. SN v SR (2023/036122) [2023] ZAGPJHC 1335 (14 November 2023) 

Introduction and Background

  1. Marriage and Separation: The applicant and the respondent had been married since 25 August 2007, out of community of property with accrual. They had two minor children. The applicant moved out of the matrimonial home on 21 November 2021, and since then, the children had primarily resided with her. The respondent filed for divorce on 24 March 2022.
  2. Primary Care and Contact Arrangements: The parties agreed that the minor children would remain in the primary care of the applicant, and the respondent would exercise contact as outlined in the applicant’s affidavit.
  3. Issues for Determination: The issues that remained to be resolved were maintenance pendente lite for the applicant and the children, retrospective maintenance, the applicant’s use of a motor vehicle, and her legal fees.

Legal Proceedings and Rule 43 Application

  1. Opposition and Challenge: The respondent opposed the order sought by the applicant and contested the applicant’s supplementary affidavit as irregular.
  2. Nature of Rule 43 Proceedings: Rule 43 proceedings, known for their interim nature pending the resolution of the main divorce action, were designed for expeditious court intervention, particularly in cases where claimants faced financial hardships.
  3. Procedural Requirements: The procedure required applicants to file a sworn statement for interim relief, and respondents to deliver a sworn reply. Replying affidavits were typically not allowed unless the court decided to call for further evidence.
  4. Discretion for Additional Affidavits: Despite the rule, the court had discretion to allow further affidavits under Rule 43(5). The applicant had filed a supplementary affidavit without court leave, leading to the respondent’s challenge. Nonetheless, the respondent also filed an answering supplementary affidavit.
  5. Court’s Discretion Exercised: The court acknowledged its discretion to allow further evidence for effective dispute resolution and chose to exercise this discretion in the current case.

Maintenance Pendente Lite

  1. Criteria for Maintenance: The court considered the parties’ standard of living during the marriage, the applicant’s reasonable needs, and the respondent’s income or assets to determine reasonable maintenance pendente lite.
  2. Applicant’s Financial Position: The applicant, having left school in Grade 10 and not been employed during the marriage, had secured temporary employment earning R3,500 per month. Her total bank balance was R3,923.03. She sought monthly maintenance of R41,849.00 for herself and the children.
  3. Additional Financial Requests: The applicant had requested reimbursement for medical plan expenses after being removed from the respondent’s medical aid. She sought either reinstatement on his medical aid or a separate plan for herself. Additionally, she requested that the respondent continue paying for the children’s educational and medical expenses.

Respondent’s Financial Position and Court’s Analysis

Respondent’s Financial Position

  1. Business Ventures and Income Challenges: The respondent was the sole member of a CC, a dog food production company. The business struggled financially due to loadshedding, failing to meet its production target of 100 tons per month. He also held a 50% share in a new business that had not yet turned a profit.
  2. Property Ownership and Income: The parties jointly owned a property, funded and maintained by the close corporation. Valued at R850,000, it generated a rental income of R5,800 monthly.
  3. Maintenance Contributions and Personal Expenses: The respondent claimed to contribute R23,337 monthly for the children, including a R10,000 cash payment. His personal expenses amounted to around R39,415. He asserted that he couldn’t afford more and believed the applicant and children did not need additional support.
  4. Questioning Applicant’s Maintenance Requirements: The respondent challenged the reasonableness of the applicant’s maintenance claims, suggesting they wouldn’t be destitute without meeting these requirements.
  5. Maintenance and Financial Adjustments: He offered to pay R10,000 for child maintenance, acknowledging a reduction to R8,000 and cessation of payments for the applicant’s retirement annuity and property rent due to affordability issues.

Court’s Analysis and Observations

Importance of Financial Disclosure: The court emphasized the need for full disclosure in financial affairs, referencing past cases where failure to do so led to dismissal of claims. It stressed the duty of applicants to act in good faith and fully disclose material information.

Respondent’s Incomplete Disclosure: The respondent was criticized for not fully disclosing his financial situation. The court found the financial statements from his close corporation insufficient for determining his true income, as they were intertwined with his personal finances.

Inconsistencies in Financial Statements: The court struggled to reconcile discrepancies in the respondent’s financial disclosure and noted unexplained additional debts and income transactions.

Doubts Over Respondent’s Financial Troubles: The respondent’s claim of financial difficulties with his close corporation was deemed unverifiable due to lack of clarity in his financial documents.

Unsustainable Claim of Limited Means: The respondent’s assertion of limited financial means was considered unsustainable, as there was no disclosure of personal income or tax information.

Analysis of Applicant’s Maintenance Needs: The court detailed the applicant’s and children’s reasonable expenses, totaling R41,851, which were deemed necessary for their basic needs and implicated the children’s constitutional rights.

Respondent’s Duty Towards Children and Applicant: Despite acknowledging the respondent’s contributions to the children’s school fees, the court emphasized his constitutional and common law duties to provide for all their needs, including the applicant’s maintenance until divorce. The R10,000 offered by the respondent was deemed inadequate.

Additional Considerations and Retrospective Maintenance

Additional Considerations Regarding Cohabitation and Spousal Support

  • Respondent’s Allegations and Applicant’s Denial: The respondent accused the applicant’s lover of causing the marriage breakdown and cohabiting with her. The applicant denied these allegations. The court noted that even if the applicant were cohabiting and receiving maintenance from her lover, this would not absolve the respondent of his duty to provide spousal support, which only ends upon divorce.

Analysis of Respondent’s Capability to Provide Maintenance

  • Court’s View on Respondent’s Financial Ability: The court believed that the respondent had the means to pay reasonable maintenance for the applicant and the minor children. It deducted the medical aid expense of R2,303 from the applicant’s maintenance calculation, as she sought an order for the respondent to cover this expense either through reinstatement on his medical aid or a new plan.

Retrospective Maintenance Claim

  • Applicant’s Claim for Retrospective Maintenance: The applicant claimed R192,000 in retrospective maintenance, stating she had to borrow funds from her lover and father to cover deficits. The respondent disputed this claim.
  • Respondent’s Response and Applicant’s Delay: The respondent had previously requested a list of maintenance needs, which the applicant did not respond to. This delay and the applicant’s borrowing from her lover and father were highlighted by the court.
  • Legal Principles and Court’s Stance: The principle of praeteritum non vivitur (not living in arrears) in common law bars claims for arrear spousal maintenance, unless debts were incurred for maintenance. However, the court pointed out that expeditious action is required in maintenance matters to avoid undue financial burdens.
  • Limitation of Rule 43 on Retrospective Maintenance: The court noted that under Rule 43(1)(a), it could not order a lump-sum payment for retrospective maintenance. This limitation was emphasized in the case of Greenspan v Greenspan, underscoring the intent of Rule 43 to provide interim relief and the impossibility of varying a lump-sum payment once made.

Dispute Over Toyota Land Cruiser and Respondent’s Financial Decisions

Applicant’s Claim for Exclusive Use of the Toyota Land Cruiser

  • Background: The applicant sought to retain exclusive use of a Toyota Land Cruiser 200, purchased by the close corporation but used by her with the respondent’s consent. The respondent later demanded its return.
  • Applicant’s Stance: She refused to surrender the Land Cruiser, arguing that it was used for her daily needs and those of the minor children, thus forming part of the respondent’s maintenance obligation.

Respondent’s Counterclaim and Financial Concerns

  • Rei Vindication Application: The respondent filed an application for rei vindication to compel the applicant to surrender the Land Cruiser. He argued that the close corporation couldn’t afford the vehicle’s monthly expenses and intended to sell it to improve his financial position.
  • Offer of Alternative Vehicle: The respondent offered the applicant a 2022 Toyota Urban Cruiser instead, which she rejected.

Court’s Analysis and Decision on the Vehicle

  • Inconsistency in Respondent’s Claim: The court noted an inconsistency in the respondent’s claim regarding the Land Cruiser. A previous communication from his attorneys indicated that the vehicle’s expenses were considered a personal expense of the respondent, not the close corporation.
  • Court’s Judgment on Vehicle Use: The court determined that, as part of the matrimonial estate, the applicant should be allowed to use the Land Cruiser pendente lite or until an alternative arrangement is agreed upon.
  • Questioning Respondent’s Financial Motives: The court found the respondent’s claim of needing to sell the Land Cruiser for financial reasons untenable, especially in light of his recent purchases of a sailboat and motorcycle, which were seen as assets of pleasure. The court viewed these purchases as contradictory to his stated financial austerity, pending full disclosure of his financial affairs.

Contribution Towards Legal Costs

Applicant’s Request for Legal Costs Contribution

  • Claimed Amount: The applicant sought a contribution of R100,000 towards her legal costs.
  • Respondent’s Offer and Criticism: The respondent tendered only R5,000 and refused to disclose his own legal expenses. He accused the applicant of irresponsible use of legal representation, noting her consistent presence with both attorney and counsel even during mediation, while he appeared only with his attorney.

Court’s Consideration and Legal Precedent

  • Nature of Cost Contribution Claims: The court recognized that claims for contributions towards legal costs are unique and stem from the mutual duty of support between spouses.
  • Reference to AF v MF Case: Citing the AF v MF case, the court underscored the importance of “equality of arms” in divorce litigation. The case highlighted the risk of financial imbalances leading to unfair settlements, especially impacting the financially weaker spouse, often the wife. This imbalance was seen as unfair and contrary to constitutional rights, including equal protection, access to courts, and dignity.

Court’s Perspective on Dignity and Support

  • Impact on Dignity: The court noted that a spouse’s dignity is impaired when they must seek financial support from others for legal costs, stressing that the primary duty of support should enable a spouse without means to secure reasonable litigation costs from the other spouse, if they have sufficient means.

Case Summary: Final Order and Conclusion

Legal Costs Contribution

  • Inadequacy of Respondent’s Tender: The court found the respondent’s tender of R5,000 for legal costs to be grossly inadequate considering the complexity of the divorce litigation, including issues surrounding the parties’ antenuptial contract.
  • Court’s Ruling on Costs: The court determined that R50,000 would be a sufficient contribution from the respondent towards the applicant’s legal costs.

Final Court Order

  1. Parental Rights and Responsibilities:
    • Both parties were granted full parental rights and responsibilities as per the Children’s Act.
    • Specific removal rights and contact schedules were established for each child, ensuring regular and structured interactions with the respondent, including holidays and special occasions.
  2. Maintenance Payments:
    • The respondent was ordered to pay R39,548 monthly for the applicant and minor children, covering various expenses including education, extracurricular activities, and medical costs.
    • The respondent was also responsible for reimbursing any additional expenses incurred by the applicant related to these provisions.
  3. Use of Motor Vehicle:
    • The applicant was granted exclusive use of the Toyota Land Cruiser, with the respondent responsible for all associated costs.
  4. Contribution to Legal Costs:
    • The respondent was ordered to contribute R50,000 towards the applicant’s legal costs within 30 days.
  5. Postponement of Retrospective Maintenance Claim:
    • The claim for retrospective maintenance of R192,000 was postponed indefinitely (sine die).
  6. Costs of the Case:
    • The court ruled that costs would be costs in the cause, meaning they would be determined as part of the overall case.


This case holds significant importance in the context of Rule 43 applications, particularly in highlighting the rule’s utility in providing interim relief in complex divorce proceedings. Rule 43 is designed to offer prompt and temporary relief on critical issues such as maintenance, custody, and legal costs, pending the finalization of a divorce. This case exemplifies the rule’s effectiveness in addressing immediate financial imbalances and ensuring that the welfare of minor children and the less financially empowered spouse are protected during the interim period. The comprehensive and balanced approach taken by the court in this case underscores the rule’s pivotal role in safeguarding the interests of all parties involved, especially in cases where there is a marked disparity in financial resources.

The judgment in this case also emphasises the importance of full financial disclosure in divorce proceedings. The court’s meticulous scrutiny of the respondent’s financial affairs, particularly the blending of personal and corporate finances, serves as a precedent for ensuring transparency and fairness in financial matters. This is crucial in divorce cases, as accurate financial information forms the basis for fair maintenance and legal cost allocations. By insisting on full disclosure and rejecting the respondent’s incomplete and inconsistent financial statements, the court upheld the principle of equitable treatment, ensuring that maintenance and legal costs were determined based on the true financial standing of the parties.

Furthermore, the court’s decision to allow the applicant exclusive use of the Toyota Land Cruiser, alongside the maintenance and legal cost orders, illustrates the practical application of the rule’s intent to provide equitable interim relief. The judge recognised the importance of the vehicle in the daily life of the applicant and the minor children, thus ensuring their stability and continuity of lifestyle during the divorce process. The decision to award a reasonable contribution towards the applicant’s legal costs, despite the respondent’s opposition, further demonstrates the court’s commitment to ensuring a level playing field in legal representation, a cornerstone principle in Rule 43 applications.

Lastly, the judge’s order reflects a deep understanding of the overarching principles of family law, particularly the best interests of the children and the equitable treatment of spouses. By carefully balancing the needs and rights of the minor children with the financial capabilities and obligations of each parent, the judge crafted an order that upholds the children’s welfare and ensures their stable upbringing. The judge’s nuanced approach in this case sets a valuable precedent for future Rule 43 applications, ensuring that interim orders serve the broader goals of fairness, children’s welfare, and judicial efficiency in family law proceedings.

Summarised by Bertus Preller, a Family Law and Divorce Law attorney at Maurice Phillips Wisenberg in Cape Town. A blog, managed by SplashLaw, for more information on Family Law read more here.